Charles Frederick Lees Schulze

1878 May 31 Born Galashiels, Scotland Father Charles William Schulze (born circa 1840 in Brunswick, Germany) and Mary Lees (born 18 May 1850 in Galashiels)

1881 Census living at Boleside House, Abbotsford Rd, Galashiels, Selkirkshire with family. His father was a Woollen Cloth Merchant

Brunswickhill. The house takes its name from the former German state which was home to Brunswickhill's first owner, a Mr Schultz, who took up residence in Galashiels in 1874 (the house has only ever been owned by four families), and is believed to be the work of the architect Andrew Heaton Jr, who designed a number of villas in the mid to late 19th century. On the market in 2010 for £1.5 million

1891 Census living at Brunswickhill, Galashiels, Selkirkshire 

1901 Census Scotland. Clerk

Charles William Schulze Married Male 61 1840 Woolen Merchant Braunschuing German Subject
Mary Schulze Married Female 51 1850 - Galashiels, Selkirkshire, Scotland
Chas Fredk Lees Schulze Single Male 22 1879 Clerk Galashiels, Selkirkshire, Scotland
Wm Rudolph Hugo Schulze Single Male 21 1880 Clerk Galashiels, Selkirkshire, Scotland
Hugh Lees Schulze Single Male 19 1882 Clerk Galashiels, Selkirkshire, Scotland
Mary Elizabeth Schulze Single Female 14 1887 Scholar Galashiels, Selkirkshire, Scotland
Alwine Dorathea Schulze Single Female 10 1891 Scholar Galashiels, Selkirkshire, Scotland
Helen Maxwell Lees Widow Female 78 1823 - Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland
Elizabeth Lees Brown Widow Female 54 1847 - Galashiels, Selkirkshire, Scotland
Mary Chisholm Single Female 28 1873 Cook (Domestic) New Belses, Roxburghshire, Scotland
May Mills Single Female 23 1878 Tablemaid (Domestic) Greenlaw, Berwickshire, Scotland
Bessie Kennedy Single Female 21 1880 Housemaid (Domestic) Riccarton, Roxburghshire, Scotland

1913 Jul 5. Leaves UK for Canada

1913 Oct 31. Apparently he was in financial trouble, and the bankruptcy hearings are what probably pushed his journey to Canada. This is him as his full name is used in 1930 Bankruptcy hearing (see below) that appear to be this one lingering on.

1914 Sep 21 Attested in Canada. A chocolate manufacturer, Next of kin Rudolphe Schulze living at Portobello, New Brunswick. Not married. Previously 2 years in KOSB. He enlisted at Val Cartier Camp in Quebec. At the outbreak of World War 1 in 19l4, a large section of the Township of Valcartier was selected by the Federal Government as a site for a Military Training Camp. As a result, this decision caused the properties of a substantial number of residents who lived in the area, mostly farmers, to be expropriated. 

In fact the families Chocolate FActory in Edinburgh was taken over by the British Government, and has been written up by the BBC


1914 Dec 23. The undermentioned to be temporary Second Lieutenants. Charles Frederick Lees Schulze.

1915 Dec 3. His financial problems rumble on.

1915 Jan 27. Promoted Lt in Dorset Regt.

1915 Aug 15. Lt C F L Schultz leaves UK for Douala, Cameroon.

1917 Jan 17 . The undermentioned to be temp. Capt.: Temp. Lt. C. F. L. Schulze, W. Afr. Frontier Force, whilst empld. with Carrier Corps.

The West African Frontier Force saw initial action during the occupation of the German Kamerun (present day Cameroon). The experience gained during in this campaign during 1914-15, in difficult terrain against stubborn resistance, made the West Africans a valuable reinforcement to the British Empire forces operating against the German Schutztruppe (colonial troops) in East Africa led by General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. A single battalion of the Gold Coast Regiment arrived in German East Africa in 1916 and was soon joined by four battalions of the Nigerian Regiment. All remained active in this theatre of war until 1918.

RWAFF strength 1914-18

We do not know a lot about the West African Carrier Corps as a history does not appear to have been published (in contrast to the East African Carrier Corps). However the WAFF realised the importance of maintaining well-trained & disciplined carrier units long before the British East African administration did, & doubtless the early Allied invasions of Togo & the Cameroons proved the point. Haywood & Clarke's "History of the Royal West African Frontier Force" comments: "Sierra Leone had formed a Carrier Corps , which was allotted to the Nigerian Brigade & the Gold Coast Regiment for head transport. The corps was recruited chiefly from the Mendi & Timini tribes consisting of men of sturdy physique well used to carrying a 60-pound load on a 15-mile march. Experience had shown that the carrier played a most important, indeed one might almost say vital, part in an African campaign where wheeled transport could not be used owing to the absence of roads." History may not remember the African carriers well, but the Allied forces in both West & East Africa could not have operated without these tough tribesmen

In the first Order of Battle for the invasion of the Cameroons the British Supply & Transport unit consisted of:
13 officers
1 British NCO
10 native superintendents & headmen
3553 carriers

One assumes that he volunteered for the WAFF from the Dorsets and was allocated to the Sierra Leone Battalion, and from there he probably volunteered for the WAFF Carrier Force (mostly Sierra Leonians) in order to see action on East Africa. (The Sierra Leone Battalion itself did not serve in East Africa.). Most war-time WAFF officers would volunteer either from civilian jobs in West Africa or from units in Britain.

1920 Jan 25. Arrives in UK from Sierra Leone

1920 Sep 16. Arrives in Singapore from UK

1920 Nov 22. "K" Company was founded in Dublin

1920. Nov 29. Schulze Joined ADRIC no 1143 posted to K Coy

1920 Dec 2.The first section K Coy arrived in Cork

1920 Dec 3. Promoted Section Leader

1920 Dec 8 The assembly of the Company was completed making the Company fully operational

1920 Dec 12 The Burning of Cork. Schultz wrote 2 letters to his family that were intercepted by the IRA. The letters just signed Charlie make comments about the burning of Cork by the Auxiliaries. Certainly Schultz is the author (he is called Charles, he served in the Cameroons, and he had a sister Dorothy who was a concert musician. However it is impossible to know with this secondary transcription how much is original and how much , if any, added spin.

The letters to his mother and Edith (girlfriend?) were written on December 16, 1920, and intercepted by the IRA. Charles was the oldest of three boys and two sisters, one of whom, Dorothy, is mentioned in the letter he wrote to his mother.The letters referred to are no recent discovery, as extracts were published from them in 1920 and copies appeared in Gerry White and Brendan O'Shea's book The Burning of Cork, published in 2006.

Dorothy became a concert violinist. Charles’ two brothers were killed in WWI. The Commonwealth War Graves Commission shows that Private William Rudolf Schulze of the 7th Battalion Cameron Highlanders died on July 18, 1916, and Second Lieutenant Hugh Lee Schulze, 6th Battalion Dorsetshire Regiment, died on October 29, 1918. In 1922 their father had a replica of the door to Amiens Cathedral added to the porch of Old Parish and St Paul’s Church, Galashiels, in memory of his two sons.

In a letter sent to his girlfriend, Edith, "Charles" describes what happened. "You will have read all about Cork. Suffice to say I was there and very actively involved to boot until dawn on Sunday. I just escaped the ambush... but later arrived as a reinforcement. We took sweet revenge," he told Edith.

In a letter to his mother, Schulze said: "Houses in the vicinity were set alight and from there various parties set out on their mission of destruction. Many who had witnessed scenes in France and Flanders say that nothing they had experienced was comparable with the punishment meted out in Cork."

The Strickland Report was circulated to the Cabinet, but the findings suppressed. However K Company was disbanded. Allegedly, some Auxiliaries took to wearing pieces of burnt cork on their caps afterwards, to celebrate the occasion, but this may just be "spin" as I cannot find the substantiation of this.

Schulze's letters refer to him being "orderly sergeant" and "sergeant of the guard" I am not clear whether this is a permanent role (ie a Section Leader with a permanent position) or whether it rotated round all Section Leaders

1921 Feb 14. A cabinet meeting in which General Tudor in reply to questioning from the Prime Minister was adamant that members of K Company under the command of Col. Latimer were responsible for the burnings as well as a bank robbery. Sir. Hamar Greenwood called for Latimer to be suspended as he was still in charge of K company.

1921 Mar. K Coy was quietly disbanded by transferring members out to other Companies. Col Latimer, the CO was reduced from 1st Inspector to 2nd Inspector and became 2nd in command of Q Company in Dublin.

1921 Mar 19 Posted to H Coy

1921 Apr 7. Posted to Q Coy Where he only stayed a week.

1921 Apr 13. Posted to H Coy

1921 May 18 Promoted Platoon Commander

1922 Jan 13. Discharged on demobilisation of ADRIC

It is unclear what happened to Charles Schulze after he left ADRIC. But his father (who died in 1930 at Galashiels) had a compensation claim, showing that Charles left the Chocolate Manufacturing Business in 1913

1931 Mar 31. He appears to be in financial trouble, although this is the same bankruptcy that was first mooted in 1913. I am unclear as to why it has been resurrected now. But it does indicate that they believe that he was in London at this date.

1938 May 21. Courtlands Socilal Club, Hornchurch, the club steward. Charles Frederick Lee, was fined £15 for selling drinks without licence and out of permitted hours.

1939 Register Living at 19 Highfield Road , Bromley M.B., Kent, England with wife Beatrice. He is a Distillery Rep

1945 Jun 19. He was manager of the YMCA at Carrington St, Derby, and gives evidence on a burglary at the club

1946 Jan 7 Died . He was living in YMCA in Derby



K Coy